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When was the Last Time You did Something for the First Time?
Ajit Kumar Padhy
September-December 2012, 11(3):99-100
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.103404  PMID:23372444
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Scientific Programme

April 2015, 14(4):1-11
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Welcome Message
Emerita Andres-Barrenechea
November 2013, 12(4):181-181
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Abstracts of Invited Lectures

January-June 2011, 10(1):26-59
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Excellence is the enemy of good
John Buscombe
September-December 2014, 13(3):147-148
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.144811  PMID:25538483
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Bone Scan "Hot Spot" at the Superior Lateral Orbital Margin Fronto-zygomatic Suture Uptake Characterized with Tc-99m MDP SPECT/CT
SP Thang, A. E. H Tan, A. S. W Goh
July-December 2011, 10(2):139-140
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.89782  PMID:22144872
Findings of a solitary "hot spot" at the superior lateral orbital margin on bone scan scintigraphy is not uncommonly seen, and is often dismissed as a benign lesion. However, the exact etiology is indeterminate. We present two cases in which hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging was able to characterize and localize this uptake, demonstrating correlation to the right fronto-zygomatic suture.
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September 2018, 17(5):49-342
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Speakers Abstracts

November 2013, 12(4):186-220
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Zinner's Syndrome
J Kuo, C Foster, DK Shelton
January-June 2011, 10(1):20-22
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.82115  PMID:22034579
A 52-year-old male was subjected to an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) study for the evaluation of newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. An incidental non-FDG avid urinary bladder mass was detected, as well as an absent kidney. Ureterocele was suspected, but subsequently a seminal vesicle cyst was confirmed on a CT urogram.
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Assessment Lumboperitoneal or Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Patency by Radionuclide Technique: A Review Experience Cases
Sunanta Chiewvit, Sarun Nuntaaree, Potjanee Kanchaanapiboon, Pipat Chiewvit
May-August 2014, 13(2):75-84
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.139135  PMID:25191120
Hydrocephalus-related symptoms that worsen after shunt placement may indicate a malfunctioning or obstructed shunt. The assessment of shunt patency and site of obstruction is important for planning of treatment. The radionuclide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt study provides a simple, effective, and low-radiation-dose method of assessing CSF shunt patency. The radionuclide CSF shuntography is a useful tool in the management of patients presenting with shunt-related problems not elucidated by conventional radiological examination. This article described the imaging technique of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and lumbar puncture (LP) shunt. The normal finding, abnormal finding of completed obstruction and partial obstruction is present by our cases experience. The radiopharmaceutical (Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) was injected via the reservoir for VP shunt and via lumbar puncture needle in subarachnoid space for LP shunt, then serial image in the head and abdominal area. The normal function of VP and LP shunt usually rapid spillage of the radioactivity in the abdominal cavity diffusely. The patent proximal tube VP shunt demonstrates ventricular reflux. The early image of patent LP shunt reveals no activity in the ventricular system contrast to distal LP shunt reveals early reflux of activity in the ventricular system. The completed distal VP and LP shunt obstruction show absence of tracer in the peritoneal area or markedly delayed appearance of abdominal activity. The partial distal VP and LP shunt obstruction recognized by slow transit or accumulation of tracer at the distal end or focal tracer in the peritoneal cavity near the tip of distal shunt. The images of the normal and abnormal CSF shunt as describe before are present in the full paper. Radionuclide CSF shuntography is a reliable and simple procedure for assessment shunt patency.
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Abstracts of Poster Presentations (Chemistry)

January-June 2011, 10(1):73-89
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Nuclear medicine in prostate cancer: A new era for radiotracers
Vincenzo Cuccurullo, Giuseppe Danilo Di Stasio, Luigi Mansi
April-June 2018, 17(2):70-78
DOI:10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_54_17  PMID:29719480
Natural history of prostate cancer (PCa) is extremely variable, as it ranges from indolent and slow growing tumors to highly aggressive histotypes. Genetic background and environmental factors co-operate to the genesis and clinical manifestation of the tumor and include among the others race, family, specific gene variants (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations), acute and chronic inflammation, infections, diet and drugs. In this scenario, remaining actual the clinical interest of bone scan (BS) in detecting skeletal metastases, an important role in diagnostic imaging may be also carried out by, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), which combine morphological information provided by CT and MRI with functional and metabolic data provided by PET acquisitions. With respect to PET radiotracers, being ancillary the usefulness of F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose and not yet demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of F-18 Fluoride respect to BS, the main role is now played by choline derivatives, in particular by 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine. More recently, a greater interest for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes has been associated with radiotracers directed to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a transmembrane protein expressed on the cell surface, which showed high selective expression in PCa, metastatic lymph nodes and bone metastases. Several PSMA-targeted PET tracers have been developed many of which showing promising results for accurate diagnosis and staging of primary PCa and re-staging after biochemical recurrence, even in case of low prostate specific antigen values. In particular, the most widely used PSMA ligand for PET imaging is a 68Ga-labelled PSMA inhibitor, 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC (68Ga-PSMA-11). 99mTc-HYNIC-Glu-Urea-A for single photon emission computed tomography, and 177Lu-PSMA-617 for radioligand therapy has also been applied in humans, with interesting preliminary results related to a possible theranostic approach. A potential role of PSMA radioligands in radio-guided surgery has also been proposed.
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Abstracts of Poster Presentations (Ga-68 Imaging)

January-June 2011, 10(1):90-97
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Abstracts of Invited Lectures

July-December 2011, 10(2):142-177
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99m Tc-MIBI Whole Body Scan: A Potentially Useful Technique for Evaluating Metabolic Bone Disease
AM Al-Shammari, AH Elgazzar, Rasha A Ashkanani
January-March 2013, 12(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.113934  PMID:23961249
Metabolic bone disease due to hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased bone resorption and new bone formation. 99m Tc- hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc MIBI) accumulation is controlled by metabolic function and cell viability. To investigate, for the first time, the potential of whole body 99m Tc MIBI scan for detecting, visually and with the aid of quantitative analysis, bony changes associated with hyperparathyroidism. Eighty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism, referred routinely for parathyroid localization, were included in this case-control prospective study. Each patient was injected with 20-25 mCi of 99m Tc MIBI. Routine anterior cervico-thoracic images were obtained for parathyroid localization. Two extra whole body images were acquired and assessed visually and by drawing regions of interest over the mandible, sternum, femur, humeri, spine, and the soft tissue adjacent to the bone. The ratios of bone to soft tissue were calculated and compared to ratios drawn in a control group routinely referred for cardiac imaging and injected with 99m Tc MIBI, after confirming the absence of any bone disease. The visual interpretation of the scans showed 48 patients to have increased bone uptake. Quantitative assessment showed significant difference between the mean ratios of the case and control groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant agreement between visual and quantitative ratios drawn from delayed right and left femora and left humerus images (P < 0.05). 99m Tc MIBI whole body imaging is a potentially useful technique for assessing metabolic bone disease associated with hyperparathyroidism. Quantitative analysis helped in confirming the visual findings.
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Current Practice and Recommendation for Presurgical Cardiac Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgeries
Subramanyam Padma, P Shanmuga Sundaram
January-April 2014, 13(1):6-15
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.138568  PMID:25191106
The increasing number of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing major noncardiac surgery justifies guidelines concerning preoperative cardiac evaluation. This is compounded by increasing chances for a volatile perioperative period if the underlying cardiac problems are left uncorrected prior to major noncardiac surgeries. Preoperative cardiac evaluation requires the clinician to assess the patient's probability to have CAD, severity and stability of CAD, placing these in perspective regarding the likelihood of a perioperative cardiac complication based on the planned surgical procedure. Coronary events like new onset ischemia, infarction, or revascularization, induce a high-risk period of 6 weeks, and an intermediate-risk period of 3 months before performing noncardiac surgery. This delay is unwarranted in cases where surgery is the mainstay of treatment. The objective of this review is to offer a comprehensive algorithm in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery and highlight the importance of myocardial perfusion imaging in risk stratifying these patients.
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Dosimetric Considerations in Radioimmunotherapy and Systemic Radionuclide Therapies: A Review
Kelvin S.H Loke, Ajit K Padhy, David C.E Ng, Anthony S.W Goh, Chaitanya Divgi
July-December 2011, 10(2):122-138
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.89780  PMID:22144871
Radiopharmaceutical therapy, once touted as the "magic bullet" in radiation oncology, is increasingly being used in the treatment of a variety of malignancies; albeit in later disease stages. With ever-increasing public and medical awareness of radiation effects, radiation dosimetry is becoming more important. Dosimetry allows administration of the maximum tolerated radiation dose to the tumor/organ to be treated but limiting radiation to critical organs. Traditional tumor dosimetry involved acquiring pretherapy planar scans and plasma estimates with a diagnostic dose of intended radiopharmaceuticals. New advancements in single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography systems allow semi-quantitative measurements of radiation dosimetry thus allowing treatments tailored to each individual patient.
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Retroperitoneal fibrosis masquerading as para-aortic lymphadenopathy on F-18 FDG PET/CT in a patient with carcinoma cervix
R Kashyap, BR Mittal, S Kumari, A Bhattacharya, B Singh
January-June 2011, 10(1):23-24
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.82113  PMID:22034580
We present a case of carcinoma cervix found to have a soft tissue lesion in retroperitoneal region with intense FDG uptake. However, this FDG uptake was false positive as the final diagnosis was retroperitoneal fibrosis.
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Strategy for bone metastases treatment in patients with impending cord compression or vertebral fractures: A pilot study
N Rasulova, V Lyubshin, F Djalalov, KH Kim, L Nazirova, N Ormanov, D Arybzhanov
January-June 2011, 10(1):14-19
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.82114  PMID:22034578
Impending spinal cord compression and vertebral fractures are considered contraindications for radionuclide bone pain palliation therapy. However, most of the patients with widespread bone metastases already have weakened vertebral segments that may be broken. Therefore, local field external-beam radiotherapy or percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) should be considered to improve the patient's quality of life and to institute subsequent appropriate treatment, including radionuclide therapy for bone pain palliation. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy for an effective treatment of bone metastases in patients with widespread bone metastases and intolerable pain, associated with impending cord compression or vertebral fractures. Eleven patients (5 females and 6 males, aged 32-62 years; mean age 53.8 ± 2.7 years) with multiple skeletal metastases from carcinomas of prostate (n = 3), breast (n = 3) and lung (n = 5) were studied. Their mean pain score measured on a visual analogue scale of 10 was found to be 8.64 ± 0.15 (range 8-9) and the mean number of levels with impending cord compression or vertebral fracture was 2.64 ± 0.34 (range 1-4). All patients underwent vertebroplasty and after 3-7 days received Sm-153 ethylene diamine tetra methylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) therapy. Sm-153 EDTMP was administered according to the recommended standard bone palliation dose of 37 MBq/kg body weight. Whole body (WB) bone scan, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed before and after treatment in all patients. Pain relief due to stabilization of vertebrae after VP occurred within the first 12 hours (mean 4.8 ± 1.2 hours; range 0.5-12 hours), and the mean pain score was reduced to 4.36 ± 0.39 (range 2-6). Subsequent to Sm-153 EDTMP treatment, further pain relief occurred after 3.91 ± 0.39 days (range 2-6 days) and the pain score decreased to 0.55 ± 0.21 (range 0-2). The responses to treatment were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Based on the results on this limited patient population, we conclude that spinal stabilization using VP in patients with widespread bone metastases and impending cord compression is an effective way to decrease disability with pain and to facilitate subsequent systemic palliation of painful skeletal metastases by Sm-153 EDTMP therapy.
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Radiosynovectomy in the Therapeutic Management of Arthritis
Liepe Knut
January 2015, 14(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.150509  PMID:25709538
Radiosynovectomy is a well-established therapy in arthritis and involves an intra-articular injection of small radioactive particles to treat a synovitis. In Europe, frequent indications are rheumatoid and poly-arthritis. Especially in Germany radiosynovectomy is the second common therapy in Nuclear Medicine with about 40,000-60,000 treated joints per year. In Spain, USA, Turkey, Argentines and Philippines the therapy is more use in hemophilic arthritis with excellent results. Especially in developing countries with low availability of clotting factors, the radiosynovectomy represent a cost effective therapeutic option for repeated bleedings in hemophilic arthropathy. The special focus in these countries is maintaining of mobility and work ability. Often only the knee and medium joints (ankle, elbow and shoulder) are treated using yttrium-90, rhenium-186 or phosphorus-32. However, in rheumatoid arthritis most common affected joints are the fingers. For the treatment in these small joints, erbium-169 is necessary. Unfortunately, erbium-169 is only available in Europe. Further indications for radiosynovectomy are osteoarthritis and the articular effusion after joint replacement. The reported response rates in rheumatoid and poly-arthritis range from 60% to 80% depends from the stage of previous arthrosis. The best effectiveness of therapy was observed in hemophilic arthritis with response rate of 90% and significant reducing of bleeding frequency. The therapy is well-tolerated with low rate of side effects. In respect of the specific uptake of particles in the synovia and short range of beta radiation, the radiation exposure outside the joint is very low. The radiosynovectomy has efforts in comparison to surgical synovectomy: it's a minor intervention with low costs; and simultaneous treatments of multiple joints or treatment in short intervals are possible. The presented paper summarized the published papers and reports our own experiences in >15,000 treated joints.
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Excessive Hepatic Arterial-portal Venous Shunting May Predict Failure of Microparticle Localization in Hepatocellular Carcinomas
Andrew Eik Hock Tan, Yung Hsiang Kao, Wanying Xie
January-March 2013, 12(1):48-50
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.113966  PMID:23961258
Locoregional treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas using yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres is an emerging modality, and involves the administration of such radioactive particles directly into the hepatic arterial vasculature. We present the case of a 58-year-old gentleman undergoing evaluation for Y-90 microsphere therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, in which our findings suggest that significant hepatic arterial portal venous shunting detected during the angiogram maybe a predictor of poor localization of microspheres in the turmor, and that centers that utilize body surface area (BSA) approaches for dosimetry should take note of such findings.
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Effectiveness of Bone Metastases Treatment by Sm-153 Oxabifore in Combination with Monoclonal Antibody Denosumab (Xgeva): First Experience
Nigora Rasulova, Vladimir Lyubshin, Dauranbek Arybzhanov, Valery Krylov, Marat Khodjibekov
January-March 2013, 12(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.113942  PMID:23961251
Breast and prostate cancer have a propensity to metastasize to bones and cause osteolysis and abnormal new bone formation. Metastases locally disrupt normal bone remodeling. Although metastases from prostate cancer have been classified as osteoblastic based on the radiographic appearance of the lesion, data gleaned from a rapid autopsy program indicate that the same prostate cancer patient may have evidence of both osteolytic and osteoblastic disease as shown by histologic examinations. Thus, bone metastases are heterogeneous, requiring combined treatment targeting on both osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions. While Samarium-153 (Sm-153) oxabifore treatment is widely used for the relief of pain in patients with osteoblastic metastatic bone lesions, Xgeva (Denosumab) is indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. It is a fully human monoclonal antibody that has been designed to target receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), a protein that acts as the primary signal to promote bone removal. In many bone loss conditions, RANKL overwhelms the body's natural defense against bone destruction. The main objectives of the current pilot study were to estimate the effectiveness of bone metastases treatment by a combination of Sm-153 oxabifore and Xgeva (Denosumab). Five patients (four female and one male, aged 35-64, mean age 50.8) with multiple skeletal metastases from prostatic carcinoma (1) and breast carcinoma (4) were studied. Their mean objective pain score according to visual analog scoring system on a 1-10 scoring system was 7.8 ± 0.5 (range 6-9). Sm-153 oxabifore was administered at the standard bone palliation dose of 37 MBq/kg body weight. Xgeva (Denosumab) was administered at a dosage of 120 mg every 4 weeks, with the monitoring of calcium level and administration of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D. Whole body (WB) bone scan was performed before and 3 months after treatment in all patients. After Sm-153 oxabifore administration, pain relief occurred within 4.4 ± 1.25 days (range 2-9 days) and the objective pain score decreased to 0.2 ± 0.2 (range 0-1). There was statistically significant difference found, according to the pain score system, before and after treatment (P < 0.0001). WB bone scan showed that in one patient, there was significant reduction in the number and intensity of bone metastases, and in four patients, there was no evidence of bone metastases found. Based on our first experience, combined treatment of bone metastases with Sm-153 oxabifore and Denosumab is effective and safe.
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ICRT-Abstracts of Poster Presentations

September-December 2012, 11(3):160-200
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Radioiodine Thyroid Ablation in Graves' Hyperthyroidism: Merits and Pitfalls
JF Nwatsock, D Taieb, L Tessonnier, J Mancini, F Dong-A-Zok, O Mundler
January-June 2012, 11(1):7-11
Ablative approaches using radioiodine are increasingly proposed for the treatment of Graves' disease (GD) but their ophthalmologic and biological autoimmune responses remain controversial and data concerning clinical and biochemical outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function, TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) occurrence after radioiodine thyroid ablation in GD. We reviewed 162 patients treated for GD by iodine-131 (131 I) with doses ranging from 370 to 740 MBq, adjusted to thyroid uptake and sex, over a 6-year period in a tertiary referral center. Collected data were compared for outcomes, including effectiveness of radioiodine therapy (RIT) as primary endpoint, evolution of TRAb, and occurrence of GO as secondary endpoints. The success rate was 88.3% within the first 6 months after the treatment. The RIT failure was increased in the presence of goiter (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-12.0, P = 0.010). The TRAb values regressed with time (r = −0.147; P = 0.042) and patients with a favorable outcome had a lower TRAb value (6.5 ± 16.4 U/L) than those with treatment failure (23.7 ± 24.2 U/L, P < 0.001). At the final status, 48.1% of patients achieved normalization of serum TRAb. GO occurred for the first time in 5 patients (3.7%) who were successfully cured for hyperthyroidism but developed early and prolonged period of hypothyroidism in the context of antithyroid drugs (ATD) intolerance (P = 0.003) and high TRAb level (P = 0.012). On the basis the results of this study we conclude that ablative RIT is effective in eradicating Graves' hyperthyroidism but may be accompanied by GO occurrence, particularly in patients with early hypothyroidism and high pretreatment TRAb and/or ATD intolerance. In these patients, we recommend an early introduction of LT4 to reduce the duration and the degree of the radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism.
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Ajit Kumar Padhy
Alan Perkins, Emerita Andres- Barrenechea, Richard Baum
November 2013, 12(4):183-184
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