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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2017
Volume 16 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 255-339

Online since Friday, September 22, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

Loss of a pioneer: Hussein Abdel-Dayem, MD 1934-2017 Highly accessed article p. 255
Essmaeel Abdel-Dayem, David Collier, Abdelhamid Elgazzar, Steven Larson, Leonard Freeman, Abbas Alavi, Waleed Omar, Habib Zaidi
DOI:10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_53_17  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Role of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the evaluation of head and neck carcinoma Highly accessed article p. 257
Moheieldin M Abouzied, Ahmed Fathala, Abdulaziz Alsugair, Ahmad I Al Muhaideb, Mohammed H Al Qahtani
DOI:10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_40_17  
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has been playing a pivotal role in tumor imaging for the past 20 years. Head and neck (HN) cancers are a good example that can illustrate such unique role of FDG imaging contributing to the patient's management. In this review article, we will describe the normal physiological distribution of FDG within HN structures focusing on its limitations and pitfalls. In addition, we will be also describing its role in the initial staging and restaging of the disease, particularly with regard to therapy response assessment. Furthermore, its role in the evaluation of patients with malignant cervical adenopathy from an unknown primary will be described. In 2016, the Royal College of Radiologists in its third edition published evidence-based guidelines for PET-CT use in HN cancer emphasizing its rule in all these clinical scenarios that are being described in this review. Finally, we will be highlighting future directions in the field of molecular imaging of HN tumors with a special emphasis on the new PET tracers.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Automated bone scan index as predictors of survival in prostate cancer Highly accessed article p. 266
Joko Wiyanto, Rini Shintawati, Budi Darmawan, Basuki Hidayat, Achmad Hussein Sundawa Kartamihardja
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215498  
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most diagnosed cancer in men. Early diagnosis and right management of PCa is critical to reducing deaths; the life expectancy is the main factors to be considered in the management of PCa. Among patients who die from PCa, the incidence of skeletal involvement appears to be >85%. Bone scan (BS) is the most common method for monitoring bone metastases in patients with PCa. The extent of bone metastasis was also associated with patient survival until now there is no clinically useful technique for measuring bone tumors and includes this information in the risk assessment. An alternative approach is to calculate a BS index (BSI) and it has shown clinical significance as a prognostic imaging biomarker. Some computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed to measure BSI and are now available. The aim of this study was to investigate automated BSI (aBSI) measurements as predictors' survival in PCa. Retrospectively cohort studied fifty patients with PCa who had undergone BS between January 2010 and December 2011 at our institution. All data collected was updated up to August 2016. CAD system analyzing BS images to automatically compute BSI measurements. Patients were stratified into three BSI categories BSI value 0, BSI value ≤1 and BSI value >1. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the survival function and the log-rank test were used to indicate a significant difference between groups stratified in accordance with the BSI values. A total of 35 subjects deaths were registered, with a median survival time 36 months after the follow-up BS of 5 years. Subjects with low aBSI value had longer overall survival in comparison with the other subjects (P = 0.004). aBSI measurements were shown to be a strong prognostic survival indicator in PCa; survival is poor in high-BSI value.
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Appearance of adrenal myelolipomas on 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography p. 271
Steven P Rowe, Mehrbod S Javadi, Lilja B Solnes, Elliot K Fishman
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215499  
With the widespread use of 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in oncologic imaging, it has become increasingly important for physicians who interpret FDG PET/CT scans to confidently recognize the spectrum of incidentally encountered benign and malignant findings. The adrenal glands represent an interesting nexus of multiple rare and common benign intrinsic tumors as well as metastases from a variety of primary malignancies. Given the breadth of adrenal gland pathology, careful description of the FDG PET/CT appearance of these pathologies is of value to help reduce misinterpretation. In this manuscript, we retrospectively and systematically review the FDG PET/CT imaging characteristics of benign adrenal myelolipomas in a small consecutive patient series. The myelolipomas in this series demonstrated differing degrees of macroscopic fat visible on CT, with generally mild FDG uptake fusing to the nonfatty portions of the lesions. At imaging follow-up, all of the myelolipomas in this series remained unchanged in appearance, helping to confirm their benign nature. The typical appearance of a myelolipoma on FDG PET/CT is a fat-containing adrenal mass with low-level FDG uptake in the nonfatty aspects of the mass, and such a lesion requires no further imaging workup.
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Considering the relationship between quantitative parameters and prognostic factors in breast cancer: Can mean standardized uptake value be an alternative to maximum standardized uptake value? p. 275
Reyhan Köroglu, İsmail Köksal, Fikri Selçuk Şimşek, Fatma Gezer, Ersoy Kekilli, Bülent Ünal
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215485  
It was aimed to investigate the correlation between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), and retention index (RI), which represents the quantitative evaluation of the uptake of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) and clinicopathologic as well as biologic prognostic factors. Forty-one women with breast cancer who were histopathologically diagnosed were included in this study. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was applied to all patients before PET/computed tomography (CT). After FDG injection, PET/CT screening was applied within the 1st h (PET-1) and in the 2nd h (PET-2). SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVmax RI, and SUVmean RI of every image were calculated qualitatively and semiquantitatively. The correlation between quantitative and semiquantitative PET parameters and biologic as well as clinicopathologic prognosis factors was evaluated. Statistically, significant positive correlation was found between lymph nodes (LNs), which were evaluated by clinical picture, clinical stage as well as histopathologically and quantitative PET parameters (SUVmax1, SUVmax2, , RImax, SUVmean1, SUVmean2, RImean) (P < 0.05). While statistically significant correlation with RImax was detected only by LN (histopathological), correlations with RImean were detected by clinical picture, clinical stage, metabolic stage, and LN (histopathological). Statistically, significant correlation was found between RImax and estrogen receptor in patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 34) (P < 0.05). We detected correlations between biologic and clinicopathologic prognostic factors and SUVmax as well as SUVmean values in breast carcinoma. SUVmean values may provide important knowledge when the correlation between prognostic factors and PET parameters is investigated even if they are not used routinely.
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The role of fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in nodal staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer in sequential surgical algorithm p. 281
Yuyang Zhang, Yolanda Elam, Patricia Hall, Hadyn Williams, Darko Pucar, Vijay Patel
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215486  
With nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accurate mediastinal nodal staging is crucial to determine whether a patient is or is not a surgical candidate. Traditionally, computed tomography (CT) and fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT are the initial steps followed by tissue sampling through mediastinoscopy and/or thoracotomy, which are invasive procedures. There is controversy regarding the possibility of omission of the invasive diagnostic procedures and solely relying on noninvasive presurgical staging CT and FDG PET/CT results. Eighty-three patients who had PET/CT, mediastinoscopy, and thoracotomy for NSCLC were analyzed. For all lymph nodes that may be sampled by mediastinoscopy, PET/CT sensitivity was 80%, specificity was 86%, positive predictive value was 47%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%; and for those in this group whose clinical stage was T1/T2 M0, sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 84%. For lymph nodes accessible only at thoracotomy, sensitivity was 42% and specificity was 88%. FDG PET/CT is accurate in assessing stations 2R/L, 4R/L, and 7 nodes and has the potential to replace mediastinoscopy in the treatment algorithm of T1/T2 M0 disease. A negative PET/CT may potentially prevent the patient from invasive mediastinoscopy given its high NPV. However, a patient with positive PET/CT should undergo tissue biopsy with pathology confirmation.
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Diagnostic accuracy and impact of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in preoperative staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma: Results of a prospective study in Indian population p. 286
Piyush Chandra, Nilendu Purandare, Sneha Shah, Archi Agrawal, Ajay Puri, Ashish Gulia, Venkatesh Rangarajan
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215491  
The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in staging patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). We further compared the performance of PET/CT with conventional imaging (CI) (CT and ultrasonography [USG]) and assessed the impact of PET/CT on disease management. This was a single institution, prospective, double-blinded study, recruiting a total of 70 treatment naïve patients. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of PET/CT for N staging were 86%, 96%, 80%, and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of PET/CT for M staging were 87%, 100%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the PET/CT was superior to CI for N staging (90% vs. 84% for CT and 80% for USG) and M staging (95% vs. 90% for CT). No statistically significant difference was noted between PET/CT and CI for N staging (PET/CT vs. CT, P = 0.125; PET/CT vs. USG, P- 0.063) or M staging (PET/CT vs. CT, P = 0.125). PET/CT upstaged 23% of patients with clinically localized disease and 58% of patients with clinically palpable regional nodes. To conclude, fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT is a highly sensitive and specific imaging modality for preoperative staging of primary CMMs. PET/CT impacts disease management in significant number of patients and should be especially recommended in all patients with clinically palpable regional nodes.
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Quantitative metabolic volumetric product on 18Fluorine-2fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in assessing treatment response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: Multiparametric analysis integrating American college of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism criteria p. 293
Nandigam Santosh Kumar, Yogesh Shejul, Ramesh Asopa, Sandip Basu
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215492  
The purpose of this study was to assess the role of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the evaluation of treatment response evaluation to disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy in patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of ten patients with proven diagnosis of RA as per the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria were prospectively evaluated. All patients underwent clinical and biochemical evaluation and a baseline FDG-PET/CT with assessment of maximum standardized uptake value and metabolic volumetric product (MVP) values. DMARD therapy was started with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine. On follow-up at 3 and 6 months, the response to treatment was assessed by clinical, biochemical, and FDG-PET/CT parameters. These parameters were analyzed in a combined manner, and the patients were grouped into 4 categories as per response to DMARD therapy - complete response, good response, mixed response, and no response. Evaluation of treatment response in ten patients at 3rd month and in nine patients at 6 months showed (a) agreement for MVP, biochemical parameters with clinical symptomatic assessment in all patients, (b) while agreement for EULAR score was noted in only three patients and disagreement in seven patients with clinical symptoms Response EULAR (rEULAR) (0.37) and at 6 months in only three patients and disagreement in six patients, rEULAR (0.52). The correlation factors at 3rd month and 6th months were, respectively, as follows: rMVP (0.67 and 0.75), response RA factor (0.54 and 0.74), response erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0.81 and 0.73), response C-reactive protein (0.78 and 0.51), and response anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (0.33 and 0.54). The overall response to DMARD therapy at 3 months was assessed with results showing good response by four cases (40%), mixed response by 1 (10%), no response by 5 (50%), and complete response by none (0%). Step-up therapy at 3 months was initiated in four patients showing nonresponse/progression on clinical symptomatic assessment; of these, two patients showed a good response, one mixed response, and the remaining one continued to show nonresponse at 6 months follow-up. One patient who had a minimal response at 3 months on PET-CT (only 5.96% reduction of MVP) was continued on the same DMARD in view of clinical symptomatic good response (at 3 months) but ultimately had disease progression in all scales and worsening of symptom (at 6 months). FDG-PET/CT-based assessment of inflammatory activity noted in the joints of RA with quantitative parameters can be a promising approach for the whole body assessment of RA disease activity and treatment response assessment, especially in inconclusive cases and correlates well with other parameters. MVP can be used as a useful objective and adjunct parameter for assessing response to treatment.
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Incremental value of single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography for characterization of skeletal lesions in breast cancer patients p. 303
Thanuja Mahaletchumy, Aini AbAziz
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215496  
The incremental value of single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) over planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT in detecting skeletal lesions in breast cancer patients and its effect on patient management is assessed in this study. This is a prospective study which was conducted over 1-year duration. Whole-body planar scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT-CT were performed in 85 breast cancer patients with total of 128 lesions. Correlative imaging and clinical follow-up was used as the reference standard. McNemar's multistep analysis was performed for each patient and each lesion. On patient-wise analysis, 47 patients had equivocal diagnosis on planar bone scintigraphy, 28 on SPECT, and eight on SPECT-CT. On lesion-wise analysis, there were 72 equivocal lesions on planar bone scintigraphy, 48 on SPECT, and 15 on SPECT-CT. Overall, SPECT-CT resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of equivocal diagnosis on both patient-wise (P < 0.004) and lesion-wise basis (P < 0.004), irrespective of the skeletal region involved. The sensitivity on a per-patient basis was 43%, 58%, and 78% for planar bone scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT-CT, respectively. Similarly, the specificity was 85%, 92%, and 94% for planar bone scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT-CT, respectively. Patient management was correctly altered in 32% of the patients based on SPECT-CT interpretation. Our data suggest that adding SPECT-CT to whole-body imaging significantly improves sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing bone metastases and significantly reduces the proportion of equivocal diagnosis in all regions of the skeleton. The most important outcome is derived from the accurate alteration in patient management clinically by down- and up-staging of patients and a more precise identification of metastatic extent.
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CASE REPORTS Top

The utility of 99mTechnetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine renogram in assessing the baseline renal function of a rare incidental ectopic thoracic kidney p. 311
Ting-Ting Zhang, Adanna Oparandu, Ziauddin Saad
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215488  
Ectopic thoracic kidney is an extremely rare condition caused by the abnormal location of one or both kidneys in the thoracic cavity. They are usually discovered incidentally on routine imaging. Although commonly asymptomatic, thoracic kidneys are at a risk of malrotation, pelviureteric junction obstruction, and subsequent obstructive nephropathy, by virtue of their long pedicle. We present a case report of an incidental thoracic kidney, for which a 99mtechnetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) renogram was performed to assess the baseline renal function. Although few reports are published in the literature using 99mTc-MAG3 renogram for this indication, we demonstrate a safe and feasible study to establish a baseline assessment of renal function in this group of patients.
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Postoperative intraperitoneal bladder rupture detected by renal scintigraphy: The importance of postvoid imaging p. 314
Bryan Kang, Daniel Eisenberg, Nikki Sistrun, Hongju Son
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215489  
Iatrogenic intraperitoneal bladder rupture is an entity that may present in a patient with idiopathic ascites. Nuclear scintigraphy is an unusual modality for the diagnosis of this etiology, and in particular, the postvoid imaging demonstrates critical findings. We present a case report, pertinent imaging, and a review of literature.
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Usefulness of Tc99m-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis of bronchobiliary fistula p. 317
Rahul Vithalrao Parghane, Rohit Kumar Phulsunga, Rajesh Gupta, Rajender Kumar Basher, Anish Bhattacharya, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215490  
Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF), a rare complication of liver disease, is an abnormal communication between the biliary tract and bronchial tree. BBF may occur as a consequence of local liver infections such as hydatid or amebic disease, pyogenic liver abscess or trauma to the liver, obstruction of biliary tract, and tumor. As such management of liver disease with BBF is very difficult and often associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, timely diagnosis of BBF is imperative. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy along with hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography using Tc99m-mebrofenin is a very useful noninvasive imaging modality, in the diagnosis of BBF.
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Regional liver disorder with differences in the accumulation of 99mTc-phytate and 99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin p. 320
Kohei Kotani, Joji Kawabe, Shigeaki Higashiyama, Susumu Shiomi
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215493  
We report a 56-year-old woman with regional liver disorder due to acute hepatitis. Computed tomographic images showed low signal density at a plain phase and prolonged contrast effect at a late phase in the left hepatic lobe, in which an accumulation of 99mTc-phytate increased, whereas that of 99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) decreased. Meanwhile, in the right lobe, an accumulation of 99mTc-GSA showed more increased than that of 99mTc-phytate. Liver biopsy showed massive hepatocyte necrosis and interface hepatitis in the left lobe, and moderate hepatitis in the right lobe. Differences in the accumulation between these scintigrams were helpful for understanding rapid necrosis in the left lobe, resulting in a compensatory enlargement of the right lobe. Clinicians should be aware that some cases of acute hepatitis cause regional liver disorder although most cases show homogeneous inflammation.
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Fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography masquerading as a case of sporadic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of lower extremity presenting as massive lower limb edema p. 324
Deepa Singh, Rajender Kumar, Ashim Das, Subhash C Varma, Bhagwant R Mittal
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215494  
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare neuroectodermal tumors resulting from the malignant transformation of benign plexiform neurofibromas. The sporadic form of these tumors is rare than familial variants (seen in neurofibromatosis Type 1) and making the diagnosis difficult. We are presenting a case of 40–-year-old female with the complaint of progressive swelling of lower limb with initial suspicion of lymphedema and underwent lymphoscintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, and finally fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans were done to rule out mitotic etiology and extent of the disease. The patient underwent below-knee amputation, and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of sporadic MPNST.
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Evaluation and identification of lumbosacral transitional vertebra causing intractable low back pain utilizing bone single-photon emission tomography with computed tomography p. 328
Khulood S Al Riyami, Suliman M Alahmed, Ziauddin Z Saad, Jamshed Bomanji
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215495  
The cause of low back pain due to lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) still remains a debated topic. Functional imaging with bone scintigraphy has been a valuable adjunct in its assessment; however, in recent years, the additional utility of single-photon emission tomography with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) is evolving as the imaging modality of choice in identifying range of complex lower back pain sources, leading to the provision of suitable treatment options. We present a case demonstrating a variant type of LSTV as a source of pain localized and delineated on hybrid SPECT/CT imaging treated by minimally invasive microendoscopic resection of the pseudoarticulations.
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Serendipitous detection of extraosseous metastases on bone scintigraphy: Utility of cross-sectional and correlative imaging p. 331
Jiwan Paudel, Harmandeep Singh, Ashwani Sood, Anish Bhattacharya, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
DOI:10.4103/1450-1147.215497  
Whole body bone scintigraphy is most commonly used imaging modality to detect and assess the extent of osteoblastic osseous metastases in malignant conditions, though visceral metastases need additional imaging. The authors describe a case of 50-year-old postoperative breast cancer female where bone scintigraphy showed soft tissue uptake in thorax and hepatic region in addition to multiple skeletal metastases, indicating the involvement of three different organs by metastatic disease. The present case highlights that extraosseous tracer uptake in addition to abnormal osseous tracer uptake may raise the suspicion of widespread and visceral metastatic disease and warrant further evaluation in the form of cross-sectional and correlative imaging.
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OPINION Top

Interpretation and diplomacy aspects of authority and care in imaging reports p. 334
Werner Albert Golder
DOI:10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_28_17  
Whereas the creative performance of the physician for nuclear medicine is measured against his/her written report, the value of the message will not only be judged by the precision of the medical statement. The same result can be attributed to different words. Numerous habitual and accidental factors exert influence on the decision on what is said and what is not said, how it is assessed, and what is ignored. The less certain a diagnosis is, and the less favorable its possible consequences are, the more subtleties and paraphrases should be expected within the report. The decision on the nature and the volume of the written report will not only be taken by the time of recording, but the way is prepared by the knowledge of the patient's history and symptoms, the personal relationship to him/her as well as by a set of conditions throughout the inspection of the images. The intuitiveness accompanying the information transfer in imaging diagnostics does not only explain the differences in volume and depth of diagnosis and differential diagnosis but also the range of diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography: How much specific it is? p. 338
Manas Kumar Sahoo
DOI:10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_2_17  
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