|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 310-312
Diffuse pleural metastases of osteosarcoma detected by bone scan
André Marcondes Braga Ribeiro, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira Lima, Daniel Habib Issa Lima
Department of Nuclear Medicine, A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Liberdade, São Paulo, Brazil
|Date of Submission||23-Apr-2020|
|Date of Decision||01-Jun-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||26-Jun-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||22-Aug-2020|
Dr. André Marcondes Braga Ribeiro
Department of Nuclear Medicine, A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Rua Professor Antônio Prudente, 211, 01509-010, Liberdade, São Paulo
| Abstract|| |
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a fast-growing tumor, with a high risk of local recurrence and distant metastases, with the lung and bone being the most common sites of dissemination occurring in approximately 80% of cases. Pleural metastases rarely occurs and the appearance of diffuse pleural thickening with ossification is not usual, with few such cases reported due to the current state-of-art treatment protocols. A 29-year-old woman, diagnosed with a proximal left tibial OS underwent planar and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography bone scan scintigraphy with99mtechnetium methylene diphosphonate showing bilateral pleural uptake, corresponding to multiple calcified foci of thickening and nodules.
Keywords: Bone scan, osteosarcoma, pleural metastases
|How to cite this article:|
Ribeiro AM, Lima EN, Lima DH. Diffuse pleural metastases of osteosarcoma detected by bone scan. World J Nucl Med 2020;19:310-2
|How to cite this URL:|
Ribeiro AM, Lima EN, Lima DH. Diffuse pleural metastases of osteosarcoma detected by bone scan. World J Nucl Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 26];19:310-2. Available from: http://www.wjnm.org/text.asp?2020/19/3/310/292983
| Introduction|| |
Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the bone, has the second-highest mortality rate among pediatric cancers, and is most commonly diagnosed in patients in the second and third decades of life. It is a fast-growing tumor, with a high risk of local recurrence and distant metastases, with the lung and bone being the most common sites of dissemination, occurring in approximately 80% of cases, but metastases to other sites are uncommon and occur in fewer than 10% of cases.
Bone scan scintigraphy (BS) with99m technetium methylene diphosphonate (99m Tc-MDP) is useful for the detection of distant bone disease, which is the second most likely location for metastatic spread. Positive findings on the bone scan may warrant additional imaging of the area of concern and ultimately, a biopsy may be necessary to prove the definitive presence of distant bone disease.
Pleural metastases rarely occurs and the appearance of diffuse pleural thickening with ossification is not usual, with few such cases reported currently reported due to the state-of-art treatment protocols., Most of the reported cases occurred after the initial treatment and isolated pleural metastases without lung metastases are unusual.
Histologically, this tumor is composed of a sarcomatous fibroblastic stroma in which osteoblastic activity induces the formation of tumor osteoid and bone. Uptake of bone-seeking radionuclides in OS metastases have been described and the mechanism of uptake is believed to be direct incorporation in the osteoid deposited by the tumor, including pleural metastases.
Herein, we report an interesting case of OS with bilateral pleural and lung metastases, without bone involvement detected by BS.
| Case Report|| |
A 29-year-old woman was diagnosed with high-grade fibroblastic OS in the proximal left tibia. She was initially treated with chemotherapy, followed by amputation of the left lower limb. Thirteen months later, she complained of dyspnea and chest pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest was performed and showed multiple pulmonary and pleural nodules suggestive of involvement secondary to the OS. In addition, a planar and single-photon emission computed tomography/CT, BS with99m Tc-MDP was also requested and demonstrated bilateral diffuse pleural plaques, which corresponded to multiple calcified foci of thickening and nodules [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. BS did not show signs of bone metastases.
|Figure 1: Planar images of the bone scan showing diffuse areas of99mtechnetium methylene diphosphonate uptake in the pleura projection bilaterally|
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|Figure 2: Coronal computed tomography image showing multiple calcified foci of thickening and nodules in both pleura (left) and the single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography fusion showing the99mtechnetium methylene diphosphonate uptake correspondence in these areas (right)|
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After restaging examinations, systemic palliative treatment for the patient was started.
| Discussion|| |
OS is an aggressive primary bone tumor arising from primitive bone-forming cells. The metastases of OS are typically hematogenous and the most common sites are lungs and bone. Pleural metastases of OS are exceedingly rare and the appearance of diffuse pleural thickening with ossification is also unusual, and few such cases have been reported. A study that included 134 patients diagnosed with OS showed that 13 of them had extrapulmonary metastases, and only two of them presented pleural metastases.
Pleural metastases in OS can occur by two mechanisms: Direct contact of pleura with the lung metastases and hematogenous spread of OS.
Conventional imaging features of extraskeletal OSs are largely nonspecific. It is a fact that this kind of tumor can produce bone and osteoid, BS can help to show these lesions, including pleural metastases.
BS is often used in conjunction with CT to identify metastases, and the presence or absence of metastatic disease remains one of the most important predictors of patient outcome.
Although CT had already shown lung and pleural lesions, our intention was to demonstrate a rare presentation of OS and an unusual image of pleural metastases detected by BS, and its diffuse pattern of distribution compared to the anatomical diagnostic method.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot bechrological order guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]