Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Users Online: 175  

 
   Table of Contents      
CASE REPORT
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 420-423

Reverse redistribution on Rb-82: Does the mechanism of stress play a role?


1 Department of Radiology, Health Sciences Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
2 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
3 Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Date of Submission07-Nov-2018
Date of Acceptance21-Dec-2018
Date of Web Publication18-Dec-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau
Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_100_18

PMID: 31933561

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


We present a case of reverse redistribution in a patient imaged with Rb-82 positron-emitting tomography. The patient was imaged twice in rapid succession using pharmacological stress – once with dipyridamole and once with dobutamine. The patient demonstrated reverse redistribution after dipyridamole but not after dobutamine administration. We speculate on the relationship between the pharmacological stressing agent and the presence of reverse redistribution.

Keywords: Myocardial perfusion imaging, positron-emitting tomography, Rb-82, reverse redistribution


How to cite this article:
Martineau P, Harel F, Pelletier-Galarneau M. Reverse redistribution on Rb-82: Does the mechanism of stress play a role?. World J Nucl Med 2019;18:420-3

How to cite this URL:
Martineau P, Harel F, Pelletier-Galarneau M. Reverse redistribution on Rb-82: Does the mechanism of stress play a role?. World J Nucl Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 6];18:420-3. Available from: http://www.wjnm.org/text.asp?2019/18/4/420/271121




   Introduction Top


Reverse redistribution on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), in which resting perfusion images demonstrate a defect absent on poststress images, has been described with various single-photon emission computerized tomography tracers, with exercise stress as well as after pharmacological stress. The significance of this finding remains unclear, but an association with significant coronary artery disease, subendocardial scarring, recent myocardial infarction, recent revascularization, and regional wall motion abnormalities has been noted.[1] The pathophysiology underlying this phenomena remains controversial, but it has been suggested to represent either areas of nontransmural scar with increased blood flow to viable tissue in the reperfused zone, normal blood flow to viable tissue in the reperfused zone, and diminished blood flow in the infarcted portion, or tracer uptake by the necrotic tissue or interstitium in the reperfused zone.[2]


   Case Report Top


We present the case of a 70-year-old man who underwent dipyridamole Rb-82 positron emitting tomography (PET) 3 days following percutaneous coronary intervention with right coronary artery (RCA) stenting [Figure 1]. There was complete occlusion of the proximal RCA, as well as multiple borderline lesions in the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex territories (LCx). Postthrombectomy and stenting [Figure 2], angiography showed complete resolution of the proximal RCA lesion and no residual disease in the remainder of the RCA territory. No intervention was attempted for the lesions in the LAD and LCx territories.
Figure 1: The patient's initial coronary angiography findings. Note the complete occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery (left panel, arrow), and multiple borderline lesions in the left anterior descending (right panel, arrows)

Click here to view
Figure 2: Postthrombectomy and stenting angiography showing complete resolution of the proximal right coronary artery lesion with no residual disease in the remainder of the right coronary artery territory

Click here to view


A follow-up dipyridamole Rb-82 PET MPI study was requested to assess the significance of the lesions in the LAD and LCx territories [Figure 3]. Perfusion images showed significantly decreased tracer uptake in the inferior wall, which normalized on the poststress images. No other significant perfusion defects were appreciated. Flow quantification revealed an impaired global myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of 1.37 with relatively homogeneous myocardial blood flow (MBF) in all territories at stress at a stress rate-pressure product (RPP) of 7850 mmHg × bpm. Hypokinesis of the inferior wall was present on both rest and poststress studies, in keeping with stunned myocardium. No misregistration errors, or other obvious source of artifact, were noted on either rest or poststress images. On the rest study, there was a clear defect in the inferior wall, which normalized on the stress acquisition following a dipyridamole infusion. On the same day, the patient underwent a repeat MPI study, using dobutamine as the stressing agent. This study again demonstrated a defect in the inferior wall which was present on both the rest and stress studies. Aminophylline was administered after the study dipyridamole study with no additional interventions performed in the time between the two studies.
Figure 3: A dipyridamole Rb-82 positron-emitting tomography myocardial perfusion imaging study was requested to assess the significance of the lesions in the left anterior descending and LCx territories. Perfusion images showed significantly decreased tracer uptake in the inferior wall, which normalized on the poststress images

Click here to view


Eight hours later, a repeat Rb-82 PET MPI study was performed using dobutamine as a stressing agent [Figure 4]. Stress RPP reached 14350 mmHg × bpm. The inferior wall defect was again seen on the rest study; however, the defect persisted on stress images. MFR to the inferior wall was again diminished on both sets of images (rest = 0.59, stress = 1.21), with a corresponding regional wall motion abnormality. The reason for the difference in findings between the two studies is unclear but is likely related to the differences in mechanism of action between the two stressing agents.
Figure 4: Repeat Rb-82 positron-emitting tomography myocardial perfusion imaging study using dobutamine as a stressing agent. The inferior wall defect was again seen on the rest study; however, the defect persisted on stress images

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


This case demonstrates reverse redistribution with Rb-82, which has not widely been reported.[3] The existence of this phenomena, well-described using Thallium-201 imaging, could have been anticipated due to the similarities between the uptake mechanisms of rubidium and thallium, both of which act as potassium analogs. MBF quantification provides additional information on the underlying pathophysiology of reverse redistribution. In addition, this case demonstrates the potential role of the stressing agent on the reverse redistribution pattern, another finding which has yet to be explored in the literature and may shed some light on the physiological processes underpinning reverse redistribution.

Despite the fact that this phenomenon was first identified nearly four decades ago,[4] the precise physiological mechanisms underpinning reverse redistribution have yet to be elucidated. Numerous explanations have been proposed, including the hypothesis that reverse redistribution was artifactual;[5],[6] however, subsequent work confirmed the physiological nature of this finding[7] without clarifying the biological mechanisms at play. It is also been noted that reverse distribution can be seen in two disparate populations: individuals undergoing routine myocardial perfusion imaging for coronary artery disease and more frequently,[2] in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. In the latter context, the results of numerous authors are compatible with the observation that the presence of reverse redistribution postmyocardial infarction is associated with the presence of viable myocardium.[2],[7],[8],[9]

The ratios of MFR in the RCA territory to the MFR in the LAD territory for dipyridamole and dobutamine are shown in [Figure 5]. After dobutamine infusion, the MFR in the RCA territory was nearly the same as that in the LAD territory; however, postdipyridamole, the MFR in the RCA territory was more than 50% greater than the MFR in the LAD territory. This difference accounts for the inferior wall defect seen after dobutamine but not dipyridamole. Although the physiological mechanism for this difference is not clearly understood, a comparable phenomenon was reported by Ito et al.[10] In particular, they reported that in dogs, the use of adenosine produced a greater increase in regional blood flow in stunned myocardium compared to normal myocardium. To the best of our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been reported with dobutamine and has not previously been reported in humans.
Figure 5: Ratio of myocardial flow reserve in the right coronary artery territory to the myocardial flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, postdobutamine (left) and dipyridamole (right)

Click here to view


Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Soufer R, Dey HM, Lawson AJ, Wackers FJ, Zaret BL. Relationship between reverse redistribution on planar thallium scintigraphy and regional myocardial viability: A correlative PET study. J Nucl Med 1995;36:180-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Weiss AT, Maddahi J, Lew AS, Shah PK, Ganz W, Swan HJ, et al. Reverse redistribution of thallium-201: A sign of nontransmural myocardial infarction with patency of the infarct-related coronary artery. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;7:61-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kashefi A, Bijan B, Kuo J, Shelton D. Clinical significance of reverse perfusion pattern in Rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion PET-CT studies. J Nucl Med 2011;52:1116.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Tanesecu D. Apparent worsening of thallium-201 myocardial defects during redistribution-what does it mean? J Nucl Med 1979;20:688.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Brown KA, Benoit L, Clements JP, Wackers FJ. Fast washout of thallium-201 from area of myocardial infarction: Possible artifact of background subtraction. J Nucl Med 1987;28:945-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Lear JL, Raff U, Jain R. Reverse and pseudo redistribution of thallium-201 in healed myocardial infarction and normal and negative thallium-201 washout in ischemia due to background oversubtraction. Am J Cardiol 1988;62:543-50.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Fukuzawa S, Ozawa S, Nobuyoshi M, Inagaki Y. Reverse redistribution on tl-201 SPECT images after reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction: Possible mechanism and prognostic implications. Heart Vessels 1992;7:141-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sakata K, Yoshida H, Ono N, Ohtani S, Mori N, Yokoyama S, et al. Implications of delayed image on simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m pyrophosphate dual emission computed tomography early after acute myocardial infarction. Jpn Circ J 1993;57:27-36.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Mesotten L, Maes A, Herregods MC, Desmet W, Nuyts J, Van de Werf F, et al. PET “reversed mismatch pattern” early after acute myocardial infarction: Follow-up of flow, metabolism and function. Eur J Nucl Med 2001;28:466-71.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Ito BR, Libraty DH, Engler RL. Effect of transient coronary occlusion on coronary blood flow autoregulation, vasodilator reserve and response to adenosine in the dog. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;18:858-67.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
     Introduction
     Case Report
     Discussion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed270    
    Printed11    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded49    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal