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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 52-53

Nuclear Accident Crisis and Liver Disease: A Summary on Evidences


Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160, Thailand

Date of Web Publication14-Jul-2014

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Viroj Wiwanitkit
Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160
Thailand
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DOI: 10.4103/1450-1147.136691

PMID: 25125994

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   Abstract 

The present global concern is on the adverse effect due to exposure to nuclides expelled from the disrupted nuclear power plant accident in Japan. The exposure can induce several adverse effects. In this specific brief review, the author summarizes the evidences on the effect on liver. Discussion is focused on several liver diseases.

Keywords: Exposure, liver, nuclear


How to cite this article:
Wiwanitkit V. Nuclear Accident Crisis and Liver Disease: A Summary on Evidences. World J Nucl Med 2013;12:52-3

How to cite this URL:
Wiwanitkit V. Nuclear Accident Crisis and Liver Disease: A Summary on Evidences. World J Nucl Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2020 Aug 7];12:52-3. Available from: http://www.wjnm.org/text.asp?2013/12/2/52/136691


   Introduction Top


The present global concern is on the adverse effect due to exposure to nuclides expelled from the disrupted nuclear power plant accident in Japan. The destroyed nuclear power plant generated a number of nuclides into the environment and this can lead to the serious contamination.

The exposure to contaminated nuclides can induce several adverse effects. Several organ systems can be affected. In this specific brief review, the author summarizes the evidences on the effect on liver. Discussion is focused on several liver diseases.


   Accumulation of Nuclides in Liver Cell Top


After exposure to leaked nuclides, the accumulation of nuclides in liver cell can be observed. There are many reports in the previous similar situation of the nuclear crisis, the Chernobyl problem. According to a study on death bodies after Chernobyl situation, the accumulation in liver cell is very high. It is in the 2 nd rank after skeletal muscle cell. [1] Indeed, this is concordant with several reports on detection of nuclides in liver cells of many animals. [2],[3],[4] Furthermore, the disturbance on the molecular structures and deoxyribonucleic acid within the cells is also reported. [3],[4] Hence, it is no doubt that exposure can lead to liver accumulation. However, in a long-term observation, absence of sclerotic lesions in the liver is reported. [5] Hypervolemia of hepatic circulation due to hyperkinetic type of central hemodynamics is common in exposed subjects. [5]


   Hepatitis Top


Hepatitis is observed as an important problem in exposed subjects in Chernobyl crisis. [6] Elevation of alanine aminotransferase, asparagine aminotransferase, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase can be seen in those patients. [6] The disturbance of antioxidant system in those patients can result in chronic hepatitis. [7],[8] The hepatitis is usually persisted and relating to duodenal ulcer. [7],[8],[9] A study by Komarenko et al. noted that changes in the L-serine and L-threonine dehydrogenase activities could be the sign for hepatitis in the exposed subjects. [10]


   Biliary Tract Disorders Top


In addition to hepatitis, biliary tract disorders are also common in the exposed subjects. The problems include chronic cholecystitis, angiocholitis, dyskinesias of the biliary ducts. [11]

 
   References Top

1.Dam K, Bankl H, Mostbeck A. Measurements of radiocesium incorporation in 250 deceased patients who died within a year following Chernobyl. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1988;100:193-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Marović G, Lokobauer N, Bauman A. Risk estimation of radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident using bioindicators. Health Phys 1992;62:332-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Blagoĭ IuP, Kornilova SV, Leont'ev VS, Sorokin VA, Gladchenko GO, Valeev VA, et al. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of DNA from animal tissue subjected to chronic irradiation in the Chernobyl area. Biofizika 1994;39:637-45.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Semenov MA, Bol'bukh TV, Krasnitskaia AA, Maleev VI. Hydration and structural state of liver DNA of rats exposed to radiation in the Chernobyl AES zone. Radiats Biol Radioecol 1994;34:328-35.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Liubchenko PN, Kovaleva LI, Nikolaeva AP, Bendikov EA, Dubinina EB, Ol'shanskiĭ VA. Intrahepatic circulation in participants of clean-up after the Chernobyl atomic energy plant accident. Med Tr Prom Ekol 1994;5:15-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Shkala LV. Metabolic disorders in digestive and hepatobiliary pathology in those who worked in the cleanup of the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic electric power station. Lik Sprava 1998;5:42-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Tribrat TA, Kostenko AG, Tsebrzhinskiĭ OI. The antioxidant system of patients with chronic inflammatory liver diseases after exposure to ionizing radiation. Lik Sprava 1999;5:23-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Tkachyshyn VS. The function of the digestive system organs in those who worked in the cleanup of the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic electric power station (a review of the literature). Lik Sprava 1999;5:32-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Danylash MM. The mechanisms of ulcerogenesis in liver pathology in persons exposed to the action of ionizing radiation. Lik Sprava 1997;5:35-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Komarenko DI, Soboleva LP, Ovsiannikova LM, Kadiuk EN, Shvaĭko EA, Nosach EV. Changes in the L-serine and L-threonine dehydrogenase activities in the blood serum of those who worked in the cleanup of the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic electric power station who became ill with chronic acalculous cholecystitis. Lik Sprava 1999;5:8-10.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Komarenko DI, Soboleva LP, Kadiuk EN, Glukhen'kiĭ EV, Nosach EV. Biliary tract diseases in persons suffering as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic electric power station. Lik Sprava 1999;5:21-3.  Back to cited text no. 11
    




 

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   Introduction
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