Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Users Online: 416  

 
   Table of Contents      
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-6

Pituitary Incidentalomas Detected with Technetium-99m MIBI in Patients with Suspected Parathyroid Adenoma: Preliminary Results


1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
2 Department of Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel

Date of Web Publication19-Jul-2012

Correspondence Address:
Ekaterina Tiktinsky
P.O. Box 151, Beer Sheva 84100
Israel
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/1450-1147.98721

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Tc-99m MIBI (MIBI) is a cationic lipophilic agent, which has traditionally been used for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, detection and monitoring of different benign and malignant tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of pituitary incidentalomas detected on MIBI scans performed on patients with suspected parathyroid adenomas and to provide semiquantitative analysis of tracer uptake in the pituitary region. Tomographic images of MIBI scans on 56 patients with suspected parathyroid adenomas (2006-2007) were analyzed retrospectively. Semiquantitative analysis of abnormal uptake was performed by drawing identical regions of interest (ROI) over the pituitary area and the normal brain on one transverse section that demonstrates the lesion most clearly. Pituitary uptake to normal brain uptake ratio was calculated in all cases. We found statistically significant differences of MIBI uptake in patients with pituitary adenomas, mean ratio: 29.78±12.17 (median 29.77, and range 19-41), compared with patients with no pathologic changes in this region, mean ratio was 5.88±1.82 (median was 5.95 and range 2.0- 9.2). As the groups are too small for statistical analysis, these results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort and should include more detailed biochemical correlation. MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy should be taken into account as a potential source of identifying pituitary incidentalomas. Clinical significance of these findings needs further evaluation.

Keywords: Parathyroid adenoma, pituitary adenoma, pituitary incidentaloma, Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy


How to cite this article:
Tiktinsky E, Horne T, Friger M, Agranovich S, Lantsberg S. Pituitary Incidentalomas Detected with Technetium-99m MIBI in Patients with Suspected Parathyroid Adenoma: Preliminary Results. World J Nucl Med 2012;11:3-6

How to cite this URL:
Tiktinsky E, Horne T, Friger M, Agranovich S, Lantsberg S. Pituitary Incidentalomas Detected with Technetium-99m MIBI in Patients with Suspected Parathyroid Adenoma: Preliminary Results. World J Nucl Med [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Dec 7];11:3-6. Available from: http://www.wjnm.org/text.asp?2012/11/1/3/98721


   Introduction Top


MIBI is a cationic lipophylic agent which was originally developed for myocardial perfusion imaging. [1] MIBI scans are also used to detect benign and malignant tumors. [2],[3],[4],[5] It has been considered a potential tumor imaging agent for detecting various kinds of brain tumors including pituitary adenomas. [6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11]

The uptake of this radiopharmaceutical depends on the distribution of regional blood flow and on mitochondrial oxidation capacity, which is an indicator of cell viability. [12]

In normal controls, faint MIBI uptake was observed in the pituitary gland. Several articles have been published describing MIBI accumulation in pituitary adenomas. [7],[8],[10] MIBI scintigraphy is routinely used in clinical practice for the evaluation of patients with hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathormone (PTH) for the localization of parathyroid adenomas before surgery. [13] In our department, the base of the skull is usually included in the field of view of the single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and easily visualized on three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed images.

The present study evaluates the occurrence of abnormal MIBI uptake in the region of the sellae turcica in patients with suspected parathyroid adenoma. Correlation with other imaging modalities (CT, MRI) and semiquantitative analysis of the pathological findings and local tracer accumulation in subjects with no proven pituitary abnormalities were obtained.


   Materials and Methods Top


Patients

The study approved by the institutional ethical committee, included a retrospective evaluation of 56 consecutive patients (38 women, 18 men, age range from 29 to 83 years, mean age 61+14.09), with primary hyperparathyroidism. They were referred to our department between September 2006 and September 2007, for MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy, before parathyroidectomy.

Methods

MIBI scintigraphy

Radionuclide imaging was performed 15 and 90 minutes after intravenous injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of MIBI into arm vein.

Planar images were performed using a 128 × 128 matrix with 20% window around 140 keV photopeak, on a dual-head, large field-of-view (LFOV) gamma camera (E-cam., Siemens) equipped with a couple of parallel hole, low-energy ultra-high-resolution collimators.

All patients underwent SPECT imaging of the base of the skull, neck and upper chest. SPECT acquisition was performed 90 min after the injection using the same gamma-camera, with a 128 × 128 matrix; 120 projections every 3° (360° rotation) and with an imaging time of 20 sec/per projection. Images were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction software. Transverse, coronal and sagittal projections were reconstructed.

The scintigraphic images were interpreted by two nuclear medicine specialists blinded to the clinical information and the results of any other imaging modality. In case of disagreement the final diagnosis was reached by consensus.

Semiquantitative analysis of tracer uptake was calculated by drawing identical regions of interest (ROI) over the pituitary area and the normal brain on one transverse section that demonstrated the pituitary area most clearly. The mean ROI values (total counts/ total pixels) were measured, and the pituitary-to-normal brain (P/B) ratios were obtained in all patients. We prefer to use as background the brain tissue above the sella turcica not attached to the choroid plexus.

At the time of MIBI scintigraphy, 18 patients had brain CT or MRI (11 CT, 7 MRI) scans for different reasons, during two years prior to current examination. In 14 cases no pituitary pathology was initially described. The P/B ratios of this group of patients were used as a normal control.

Statistical analysis

For statistical analysis we used the following: χ2 test, Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric one way ANOVA test and Spearmen non-parametric correlation coefficient. Software SPSS-14 was used for data processing.

As the groups are too small for statistical analysis, we also presented the data by graphic display, plotting a graph of the pituitary to normal brain tissue uptake ratio.


   Results Top


In 14 out of 18 patients who had no abnormal findings in the dorsum sella region on initial interpretation of CT or MRI studies, the mean P/B ratio was 5.87±1.82 (the median was 5.95 and the range was 2.0-9.2) [Figure 1]. One patient, whose CT was interpreted at the beginning as normal, had an extremely elevated P/B ratio. On revised CT scan a pituitary mass was found. Another 2 patients who had increased P/B ratios (20 and 29) with suspected pituitary adenomas were excluded from the study, because they were missed from the outpatient clinic follow-up. In 4 patients with known pituitary abnormalities: two had pituitary macroadenomas, one had partial empty sellae and one had an initially "missed" pituitary adenoma, the mean P/B ratio was 29.77 ± 12.17 (the median was 29.55 and the range 19.0-41.0) [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Tc-99m MIBI SPECT in patient with suspected parathyroid adenoma (a) Transverse, (b) Sagittal and (c) Coronal section images). Very faint tracer uptake is noted in Sella Turcica with a normal P/B ratio of 4.2. MRI done subsequently was norm

Click here to view
Figure 2: Tc-99m MIBI SPECT in patient with suspected parathyroid adenoma (a) Transverse, (b) Sagittal and (c) Coronal section images). A focus of increased tracer activity is noted in the area of the sella Turcica with a high P/B ratio of 19.5; Confirmed as Pituitary macro-adenoma on MRI

Click here to view


In the remaining 36 patients (without known pituitary abnormalities), the mean P/B ratio was 5.32 ± 1.82 (the median was 5.15 and the range was 2.6-8.6).

The mean P/B ratio of the pathological group was significantly higher than the mean P/B ratio of the normal group (P < 0.001).

As the groups are too small and statistical inference is limited in data, the results were also displayed graphically [Figure 3]. The graph demonstrates the P/B ratios in the 2 control groups and pathological groups. The figure illustrates the P/B ratios in the two control groups and the pathological groups. There is no overlap between the uptake ratios of the normal and the abnormal groups.
Figure 3: Distribution of P/B ratios in the 4 studied groups

Click here to view


The mean age of the verified normal 14 patients was 65.57 ± 16.16 (the median was 62.50 and the range was 40-96). The mean age of the unverified normal 36 cases was 59.40 ± 14.10 (the median was 59.00, the range was 20-80) and for the 4 abnormal patients the mean age was 63.75 ± 7.00 (the median was 63.00 and the range was 57-72).

There were no statistically significant differences between the ages of the patients in the groups.


   Discussion Top


The development of imaging techniques has resulted in the discovery of unsuspected silent pituitary incidentalomas. [14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] It is important to distinguish between pituitary adenomas and normal variations in pituitary size. Therefore, comprehensive clinical assessment and long-term follow-up are necessary.

On the other hand, tomographic reconstruction of MIBI scan for detection of parathyroid adenoma performed by a large field of view gamma-camera makes possible the cross-sectional evaluation of the region including base of skull, neck and thorax. An abnormal tracer accumulation in an unexpected area should be monitored carefully to exclude space-occupying lesions.

Several previous reports demonstrated increased uptake of MIBI in the regions of dorsum sella and clivus. This strongly associates with pituitary adenomas. [7],[8],[10],[21] Our study supports this data and suggests a simple semiquantitative index to diagnose underlying pituitary abnormalities.

Kunishio et al. [7] reported relatively low P/B ratios in delayed images in two patients with nonfunctioning adenomas, within the range of our normal control. All of them were more than 20 mm in diameter, in one case a cavernous invasion was noted. Lack of hormone production does not explain this discrepancy as in the same study other cases of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas had high P/B ratios.

In our group, the number of abnormal observations is too small for performing statistical tests. However, the difference in P/B ratios between the abnormal and the normal group is substantial for identifying the pathological cases.

Our result is consistent with the findings of Yokogami et al., [22] who found some MIBI uptake in normal choroid plexus.

In conclusion, the preliminary result of our study indicates that measurement of P/B ratios, obtained on MIBI SPECT performed on patients with suspected parathyroid adenomas may be helpful to detect underlying pituitary pathology. Clinical significance of routine semiquantitative analysis of MIBI pituitary uptake needs further prospective evaluation.

 
   References Top

1.Mandalapu BP, Amato M, Stratmann HG. Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging: Current role for evaluation of prognosis. Chest 1999;115:1684-94.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Burak Z, Moretti JL, Ersoy O, Sanli U, Kantar M, Tamgac F, et al. 99mTc-MIBI imaging as a predictor of therapy response in osteosarcoma compared with multidrug resistance-associated protein and P-glycoprotein expression. J Nucl Med 2003;44:1394-401.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Del Vecchio S, Zannetti A, Aloj L, Salvatore M. MIBI as prognostic factor in breast cancer. Q J Nucl Med 2003;47:46-50.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.el-Shirbiny AM, Yeung H, Imbriaco M, Michaeli J, Macapinlac H, Larson SM. Technetium-99m-MIBI versus fluorine-18-FDG in diffuse multiple myeloma. J Nucl Med 1997;38:1208-10.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Kawata K, Kanai M, Sasada T, Iwata S, Yamamoto N, Takabayashi A. Usefulness of 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in suggesting the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy against gastric cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:3788-93.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Beauchesne P, Pedeux R, Boniol M, Soler C. 99mTc-sestamibi brain SPECT after chemoradiotherapy is prognostic of survival in patients with high-grade glioma. J Nucl Med 2004;45:409-13.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Kunishio K, Okada M, Matsumoto Y, Nagao S, Nishiyama Y. Technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography findings correlated with P-glycoprotein expression in pituitary adenoma. J Med Invest 2006;53:285-91.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Kunishio K, Morisaki K, Matsumoto Y, Nagao S, Nishiyama Y. Technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography findings correlated with P-glycoprotein expression, encoded by the multidrug resistance gene-1 messenger ribonucleic acid, in intracranial meningiomas. Neurol Med Chir 2003;43:573-80.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Park CH, Sataloff R, Richard M, Zhang J, Kim SM. Tc-99m MIBI brain SPECT of cerebellopontine angle tumors. Clin Nucl Med 1996;21:375-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Perez-Monte JE, Brown ML, Clarke MR, Watson CG, Carty SE. Parathyroid hyperplasia, thymic carcinoid and pituitary adenoma detected with technetium-99m-MIBI in MEN type I. J Nucl Med 1997;38:1767-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.Bagni B, Pinna L, Tamarozzi R, Cattaruzzi E, Marzola MC, Bagni I, et al. SPET imaging of intracranial tumours with 99Tcm-sestamibi. Nucl Med Commun 1995;16:258-64.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.Bleichner-Perez S, Le Jeune F, Dubois F, Steinling M. 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT as an indicator of the chemotherapy response of recurrent, primary brain tumors. Nucl Med Commun 2007;28:888-94.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]    
13.Ak I, Gulbas Z, Altinel F, Vardareli E. Tc-99m MIBI uptake and its relation to the proliferative potential of brain tumors. Clin Nucl Med 2003;28:29-33.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]    
14.Chiu ML, Kronauge JF, Piwnica-Worms D. Effect of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials on accumulation of hexakis (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) technetium (I) in cultured mouse fibroblasts. J Nucl Med 1990;31:1646-53.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]    
15.Palestro CJ, Tomas MB, Tronco GG. Radionuclide imaging of the parathyroid glands. Semin Nucl Med 2005;35:266-76.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]    
16.Daly AF, Burlacu MC, Livadariu E, Beckers A. The epidemiology and management of pituitary incidentalomas. Horm Res 2007;68:195-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]    
17.Oyama K, Sanno N, Tahara S, Teramoto A. Management of pituitary incidentalomas: According to a survey of pituitary incidentalomas in Japan. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2005;26:47-50.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]    
18.Sanno N, Oyama K, Tahara S, Teramoto A, Kato Y. A survey of pituitary incidentaloma in Japan. Eur J Endocrinol 2003;149:123-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]    
19.Fainstein Day P, Guitelman M, Artese R, Fiszledjer L, Chervin A, Vitale NM, et al. Retrospective multicentric study of pituitary incidentalomas. Pituitary 2004;7:145-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]    
20.Molitch ME. Clinical review 65. Evaluation and treatment of the patient with a pituitary incidentaloma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:3-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]    
21.Kojima T, Mizumura S, Kumita SI, Kumazaki T, Teramoto A. Is technetium-99m-MIBI taken up by the normal pituitary gland? A comparison of normal pituitary glands and pituitary adenomas. Ann Nucl Med 2001;15:321-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]    
22.Yokogami K, Kawano H, Moriyama T, Uehara H, Sameshima T, Oku T, et al. Application of SPET using technetium-99m sestamibi in brain tumours and comparison with expression of the MDR-1 gene: Is it possible to predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with gliomas by means of 99mTc-sestamibi SPET? Eur J Nucl Med 1998;25:401-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]


This article has been cited by
1 The pituitary in nuclear medicine imaging
Pedro Iglesias,Jorge Cardona,Juan José Díez
European Journal of Internal Medicine. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Clinical Significance of Incidental Pituitary TC-99m MIBI Uptake on Parathyroid Spect and Factors Affecting Uptake Intensity
Mine Araz,Derya Cayir,Bekir Ucan,Alper Dilli,Erman Çakal
Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Clinical usefulness of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC, 99mTc(V)-DMSA, and 99mTc-MIBI SPECT in the evaluation of pituitary adenomas
Vladimir R. Vukomanovic,Milovan Matovic,Mirjana Doknic,Vesna Ignjatovic,Ivana Simic Vukomanovic,Svetlana Djukic,Miodrag Peulic,Aleksandar Djukic
Nuclear Medicine Communications. 2018; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Incidentally Discovered ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma on a Sestamibi Scan in a Patient With Hyperparathyroidism
Nitesh D. Kuhadiya,Anu Verma,Antoine Makdissi,Ajay Chaudhuri,Anshu Alok,Manav Batra
AACE Clinical Case Reports. 2015; 1(3): e152
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Incidental Pituitary Uptake on TC-99 Sestamibi Scan
Fadi Nabhan,Bingfeng Tang,Ricardo Carrau,Daniel Prevedello,John Phay
Endocrine Practice. 2015; 1(-1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Pituitary incidentalomas: application of an evidence-based approach at the individual patient and population levels
David C Aron
Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2013; 8(6): 517
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2960    
    Printed258    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded446    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 6    

Recommend this journal